Xanthippe has gotten a bad press as a shrew. He does not think much of women anyway, with some exceptions—he praises the courtesan Aspasia as a match- maker Xenophon, Memorabilia, II. But when Xanthippe comes on his last day and cries, he sends her away for acting like a woman Plato, Phaedo, 60a —not properly philosophic about her husband being about to die. The 3rd century C. The traditions give the occupation of Socrates father, Sophronicus, as a maker of statues, and Socrates, at least in his younger days, as carrying on this profession, and as the sculptor of the Graces at the entrance to the Acropolis see, e.
In any event, we know that Socrates did military service for Athens, and fought as a Hoplite at Potidaea B. Plato, The Apology, 28e. Hoplites had to provide their own armor and weapons, and would have had to be sufficiently wealthy to do this Wikipedia. We do not know precisely his age when he turned to philosophy, and became an exponent of frugality. Is it that those who take money are bound to carry out the work for which they get a fee, while I, because I refuse to take it, am not obliged to talk with anyone against my will?
It seems likely that Socrates was possessed of a small inheritance, and lived off the interest on this. Or so, at least, says Plutarch ca. Socrates owned not only his house, but also seventy minas out at interest with Crito. Certainly they were willing to provide the funds needed to facilitate his escape from prison Plato, Crito, , 45 a,b. In the tumultuous period in the last years of the Peloponesian war, however, this source of income may well have dissipated. I would suggest then another possibility at that time, a marriage in which his basic needs would be met in return for his satisfaction of conjugal duties with the daughter of one needing an heir.
This would explain the marriage of an older man in his fifties, physically unattractive, with no visible means of support, to a young woman in her twenties, with a temper making her an undesirable mate. Perhaps no one else could be found to marry her because of her temper, and her father wanted an heir. I would speculate that this would then have been a marriage of convenience, to provide Socrates with a home and meals, and Xanthippe with a husband and a family. There is no indication that Socrates ever took much interest in the marriage, or that he played any role in the upbringing and education of his sons.
To the contrary, it would seem that he was pretty much self-centered and cared only for his philosophizing. He does not appear among those surrounding Socrates, or at the death of Socrates, or at any other time. Clearly the marriage was not important to Socrates. Considering the nature of her marriage, I am not surprised at her occasional irritation and reputation for shrewishness—Socrates clearly gave her no attention, no affection, no love, nor did any of his friends or companions.
We may also note that in the discussions between Socrates and his friends there is no mention of providing any economic assistance to Xanthippe and her children. Critias notes that his cousin, Charmides, coming in shortly, is known as the greatest beauty. Clearly, Socrates here may be seen as a pedophile. Whether this extended to physical contact is not so clear. Some time later at a banquet Plato, , Symposium a drunken Alcibiades appears. I have found my love for this fellow no trifling affair.
Alcibiades notes that Socrates is amorously inclined to handsome persons D. But Socrates, at least by this time of his life, has learned self-discipline and avoids physical contact. Alcibiades recounts his unsuccessful attempt to seduce Socrates A f.
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Self-control is the foundation of all virtue, and a man who is the slave of his pleasures is in an evil plight, body and soul Xenophon, , I. What we have here is a picture of Socrates as a lover of beauty, exemplified best in the young. All men, Diotima has told him, at a certain age yearn to beget, but cannot do so with an ugly person Plato, Symposium, , C. It is the beau- tiful, rather than the ugly that is welcomed B. And one learns to recognize the beautiful by boy-loving Plato, , B.
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Socrates sees himself as ugly. Socrates is taken as resembling the Satyrs, with their coarse features Xenophon and p. But Socrates argues for the primacy of spiritual over carnal love Xenophon, 8:passim. Nevertheless we can easily infer that as Socrates aged he became more sensitive to what he could see as increasing ugliness, and thus as his being less appealing to the young. This, taken together with his oligarchic sympathies, would tend to alienate him from the democratic sympathies of the majority of his fellow citizens after the overthrow of the Thirty Tyrants in C.
His siring of two young children in the years immediately preceding his death, perhaps a decade or so after his first child, supports the inference that his circle had narrowed to a few of his older colleagues, that his contacts with the young had been significantly reduced, and that he had then turned to his wife for such comfort as he could find.
There were apparently several near-contemporaneous accounts of the last days of Socrates. Thus Xenophon notes the existence of several such writings Apology, 1 : We have today only the four dialogues of Plato, noted above, and that of Xenophon. Xenophon indeed notes his lofty statements and their probable reality, but adds a more human factor: It is true that others have written about this, and that all of them have reproduced the loftiness of his words—a fact which proves that his utterances really was of the character intimated—but they have not show clearly that he had now come to the conclusion that for him death was more to be desired than life; and hence his lofty utterance appears rather ill-considered.
Xenophon, Apology, Socrates could easily have prepared a defense which would have led to an acquittal, or at least something less than death, say a fine or banishment. Quintilian ca. But such a course would have been unworthy of his character, and, therefore he pleaded as one who would account the penalty to which he might be sentenced as the highest of honours.
The wisest of men preferred to sacrifice the remnant of his days rather than to cancel all his past life. And since he was but ill understood by the men of his own day, he reserved his case for the approval of posterity and at the cost of a few last declining years achieved through all the ages life everlasting.
And so although Lysias, who was accounted the first orator of that time, offered him a written defence, he refused to make use of it, since, though he recognised its excellence, he regarded it as unbecoming to himself. Do you not know that I would refuse to concede that any man has lived a better life than I have up to now?
Perhaps God in his kindness is taking my part and securing me the opportunity of ending my life not only in season but also in the way that is easiest. For when a person leaves behind in the hearts of his companions no remembrance to cause a blush or a pang, but dissolution comes while he still possesses a sound body and a spirit capable of showing kindliness, how could such a one fail to be sorely missed?
It was with good reason that the gods opposed my studying up my speech at the time when we held that by fair means or foul we must find some plea would effect my acquittal. For if I had achieved this end, it is clear that instead of now passing out of life, I should merely have pro- vided for dying in the throes of illness or vexed by old age, the sink into which all distresses flow, unrelieved by any joy. As Heaven is my witness, Hermogenes, I shall never court that fate; but if I am going to offend the jury by declaring all the blessings that I feel gods and men have bestowed on me, as well as my personal opinion of myself, I shall prefer death to begging meanly for longer life and thus gaining a life far less worthy in exchange for death.
Xenophon, Apology, Ibid. He had no family support to speak of, no siblings, no immediate blood relations are mentioned. Life expectancy was shorter then than now, he pre- sumably was beginning to develop the ills of age. He was on the wrong side of the dispute with the Thirty Tyrants, thus with a diminished reputation and standing. Perhaps his economic support also lessened, though it appears that Crito and his friends would have been glad to have supported him—but this could very well have offended his pride. All in all, he must have been tired, disillusioned and generally depressed by how things had gone and by his age.
Socrates says there that suicide is not permitted , 61C , so this is not an option for him. He provided a very insuffi- cient defense, he did not suggest an alternative sentence, such as banishment, the jury in a close verdict then sentenced him to death. Socrates also provided the rationale for himself, that of the immortal soul, and his going to a better place. And he also rationalized acceptance of the verdict in terms of not destroying the foun- dations of society by ignoring its laws.
In the end I cannot but think that Socrates invited and collaborated in his death, and that the rest was rationalization. To summarize: Plato presents a picture of a philosophical Socrates, resigned to his death so as not to challenge the laws of the state, bolstered by his knowledge of his own goodness, and of the immortality of his soul.
Xenophon, by contrast, gives a Socrates facing the disabilities of old age and seeking death. That Socrates desired death is supported by an examination of his personality and the political and social context of his life at the time.
His social support network was crumb- ling. He had no immediate family, no siblings, no aunts, uncles, cousins, to pro- vide familial support. He was a lover of beautiful bodies, mostly of young men, but was himself physically unattractive, unlikely to be appealing to others. His mar- riage came late in life, and appears to have been more one of convenience than of love—in fact, his sense of what a relationship between a man and a woman appears to have come from two women, Aspasia and Diotima, rather than his own feelings and observations.
That he was a pederast, at least, seems certain, and was com- fortable only in the company of men. But this circle too, in the aftermath of the defeat of Athens by Sparta in the Peloponnesian War, and the consequent political upheavals, was most likely narrowing, reduced to a group of pro-Spartan, philo- sophically oligarchical old friends in an emotionally charged anti-Spartan, democratic environment.
His earlier services to the Athenian state, such as his military service as a Hoplite infantryman in several major battles, had been either forgotten or no longer considered of any account. And to add to these, his age could only lead him to contemplate increasing physical disabilities—his sight and hearing declining, his cognitive abilities fading away. These factors are not usually considered as a whole in the accounts of his acceptance of death. But taken together they give a picture of a man, his support systems crumbling, to whom, at that moment, the prospect of death was more appealing than a few more short years of life.
His inner voice, his daimon, supported him in this decision, pre- venting him from mounting a defense.
And, finally, his undoubted philosophical gifts could provide a rationalization of this decision. The Art of Rhetoric. Freese Trans. Critchley, S. Learning how to die—Socrates. In The book of dead philosophers pp. New York: Vintage Books.
Gallery Opening - The Lost Photographs Of Socrates Smith
Diogenes Laertius. Lives of eminent philosophers. Hicks Trans. Joyal, M.
- Deductive Reasoning.
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The platonic theages. Stuttgart: Steiner. Legon, R. Megara: The political history of a Greek city-state to B. Lindsay, M. Suicide by cop: Committing suicide by provoking police to shoot you. Amityville, NY: Baywood. Description of Greece. Jones Trans. Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo, Phaedrus. Harold North Fowler Trans. Lysis, Symposium, Gorgias.
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Lamb Trans. Charmides, Theages. Life of Aristides, in Lives. Bernadotte Perrin Trans.
On the sign of Socrates. In Moralia vol. VII, p. Einarson Trans. Quintilian, M. Institutio oratorica. Butler Trans. Qutb, S. Damascus, Syria: Dar al-Ilm. Stone, I. Westlake, H. Thessaly in the fourth century B. Xenophon Carleton L. Brownson Trans. Memorabilia, Oeconomicus. Marchant, Trans. You are right, remapping-socrates-sorted.
Long file is a fasta file and short file is a bam file Is this normal? But in any cases, theses 2 files are not empty. Sorry to insist, I really want to run Socrates. But even when I'm checking carefully the steps I followed, I can't figure out what I did wrong. Skip to content. Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 36 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Sign up. New issue. Copy link Quote reply. Hello, I've followed instructions to launch Socrates on my data, however, it crashed at the Clustering steps.
ExecutionException: java. Thanks for your help! This comment has been minimized. Sign in to view. Hi, sorry for the late reply.
I'm rewritting my whole process again so you can understand better what I did : BAM Stratifier java -Xmx70g -cp socrates RealignmentBAM remapping-socrates-sorted.