Most widely held works about R. N DeArmond. Most widely held works by R. Staking her claim : the life of Belinda Mulrooney, Klondike and Alaska entrepreneur by Melanie J Mayer Book 5 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide The story of a remarkable woman in the North American frontier. If Horatio Alger had imagined a female heroine in the same mold as one of the young male heroes in his rags-to-riches stones, she would have looked like Belinda Mulrooney. Smart, ambitious, competitive, and courageous, Belinda Mulrooney was destined through her legendary pioneering in the wilds of the Yukon basin to found towns and many businesses.
She built two fortunes, supported her family, was an ally to other working women, and triumphed in what was considered a man's world. Who's who in Alaskan politics : a biographical dictionary of Alaskan political personalities, by Evangeline Atwood Book 4 editions published in in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide Over short biographies of people who have made a substantial imprint on Alaskan politics to Early visitors to southeastern Alaska : nine accounts Book 4 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide Accounts of southeastern Alaska taken from the writeups of the early explorers of to Includes map and census of Sitka with biographical information on residents.
From original manuscript held by Scott Polar Research Institute. The founding of Juneau by R. N DeArmond Book 6 editions published between and in English and held by 83 WorldCat member libraries worldwide Contains list of people associated with Juneau, Added modifications to 65 kg hull wheels, self-propulsion device, internal modifications and reinforcements 15 kg. That leaves approximately 25 kgs for food, water, and all the other equipment necessary to self-support oneself between Victoria, BC and Ketchikan, AK.
Translation, frequent stops to pick up food and supplies The Etchells is a fantastic boat! She beats upwind extremely well and is powerful even in light air. Grin had three aboard. That gives me a target to shoot for if I'm in it to race, but, as you already know, for me it's about the adventure - the competition is with myself I have a little less than six months to get the boat and myself ready Regarding other great boats, there are many new and different ones this year: 1.
Team Kraken Up will be using a longdory. Team Liteboat will be coming from France with a an expedition rowboat of some form Collin Angus will be making the trip in a modified row-cruiser. Team Archimedes will be going in a gaff-rigged penguin. Team Turn Point design will be going in an engineering marvel built right here in Port Townsend Bottom line You'll be glad you did Michael, looking at that partial list of entries there I am no doubt impressed with the diversity.
Do you think it could indicate a stronger field of oar and paddle powered entries this year? A response to the set forward start date? This year's contest could have a significantly different character and outcome. Of course the weather will be the 1 factor. But that includes lack of weather too, doesn't it? Dirk: There are a variety of boats this year.
Team Kraken Up is rowing a longdory with nine think Soggy Beavers only better. TakemetotheVolcano is building a custom tri and there are a number of other trimarans predominantly Fs. TrunPoint Design will be entering their carbon cat Felix with foils this year. And then there are the monohulls ranging from an Olsen 30, to Mirror 16 with everything in between including my Etchells With regard to weather it's anyone's guess. Last year was unusual; however, I'm personally planning for everything between becalmed and 45 knots plus. If I could choose, I'd prefer 20 knots on the nose but that's where my boat excels.
As you know, I'm in it to finish, therefore, redundancy is the name of the game - making slow but deliberate progress. I have the pain issue to deal with too so may need to sail a day, sleep a day to make my goal of arriving Ketchikan ahead of the sweep boat. I'm now committed to the Etchells as the boat of choice and have made, or am in the process of making, spares for everything painfully slow without working hands but getting done.
I'm working on the boat on the hook in the middle of winter, so I should be prepared to take care of anything that presents itself while at sea. The treadle-powered propulsion system has been started and should allow me to easily make 3 knots if needed. All the best, Michael. It is a safe and pleasant har- bour within, having but one common and safe entrance, and that not very broad, there scarce being room for three ships to come in, board and board, at a time; but being once within, there is room for the anchorage of five hundred ships.
Explorers j Fishermen, Traders 19 To New Ports Though the first settlers intended to become farmers, many found the hardscrabble, upland pastures hardly worth the clearing, and the building of stone walls fruitless labor. Some turned for their livelihood to the sea, where the shoals and offshore banks teemed with great schools of fish. Establishing themselves in settlements along the coast, they used the sea as the recognized highway from village to village, since land travel over the rude forest trails was difficult and hazardous.
To meet the immediate need for small craft, shallops were built of rough-hewn timbers. Within a few months the shal- lops were being used in opening up trade with the Indians of the Kennebec River. Commerce increased rapidly among the settlements along the Bay. The hundred bushels of corn Samuel Maverick's pinnace brought back from the Cape Cod Indians in the autumn of were a modest forerunner of the rich mari- time exchanges which before long made Boston the chief trading port of the Atlantic coast. To open up new trade routes, John Oldham was sent 3 years later on a land expedi- tion to the Connecticut River country.
He brought back hemp, beaver skins, and black lead; and gave sanguine accounts based on what the Indians told him of the lavish productiveness of the region. The Indian and local trade were soon followed by more distant coastal commerce. In May , an 1 8-ton pinnace brought corn and tobacco from the southern settlements.
Early the following year a Virginia bark, having unloaded at Salem, stopped for a month in Boston harbor. Maverick's pin- nace then accompanied it on its homeward voyage to estab- lish new trade relations between Boston and Virginia. Only 2 years later, 10, bushels of corn entered the harbor from the southern colony, in return for which many barrels of fish were shipped south. Boston trade with the Dutch colonies of Manhattan and Long Island was also well under way. By , the Dutch of these regions were providing the Boston people with sugar, brass pieces, beaver skins, and considerable num- bers of sheep, in exchange for liquor and linen cloth.
Many interesting episodes accompanied the opening up of the coastal trade. Commerce with Maryland had various com- plications to overcome. Letters from the Governor of Maryland, reenforced by one from the Governor of Virginia, served to smooth the way, and the arrival of a Maryland pinnace in , bringing corn for fish, made exchange a simple matter. A Captain Young of Maryland also wrote, offering to bring cattle.
But when, in , a Mr. Neale brought two pinnaces under com- mission from Governor Calvert to buy mares and sheep in Massachusetts, he could offer only bills of exchange, payable by Lord Baltimore in London. We scarcely need John Win- throp's laconic comment to know that "no man would deal with him.
The following year another Boston ship, about to return from the same territories, laden with skins and other commodities, was attacked and plundered by Indians. The trade relations of Boston merchants with the French colonies in Canada form an entertaining chapter of their own. The impressions of the French themselves of the commercial and maritime prestige of Boston are shown in their naive conception of Massachusetts as "the colony of Boston.
From documents presented in Boston by La Tour's agents, it seemed clear that he, rather than D'Aulnay, was in the favor of the French King. In return for promised trade concessions, the General Court and town authorities allowed La Tour in to hire whatever ships he could and enlist as many men as were willing to accompany him in his military operations against D'Aulnay.
The expedition was not successful, and 2 years later D'Aulnay was able to present proof of his rightful standing as Governor. He then destroyed La Tour's base at St. But La Tour, though discredited officially, found himself still personally popular in Boston. He had many friends here who outfitted him for a trading voyage. Sailing from the Port of Boston, this gentleman of France dumped the Boston members of his ship's company on shore at Cape Sable in dead of winter, and turned pirate.
The Frenchman was not the first pirate to prey upon Boston Explorers, Fishermen, Traders 21 shipping, for Dixey Bull has the distinction of being the pio- neer in that line for Boston and New England. He came from England in and, a year later, was known as a respectable trader in the beaver traffic of Penobscot Bay. When a group of roving Frenchmen came upon him and made off with his shallop and stock of coats, rugs, blankets, and even his bis- cuits, the outraged Bull decided an honest trader's lot was a hard one.
He gathered a crew of adventurers and searched widely but vainly for his French attackers. Disappointed and still angry, he revenged himself by plundering colonial vessels along the coast and forcing a few of their crew to join his company. After several such escapades Dixey Bull steeled to the business. He is reported to have written a circular letter to all governors in the region advising them that he and his companions intended no further harm to their citizens; that they were going southward; and that efforts to capture them would be useless, as they were determined to sink before allow- ing themselves to be taken.
Nevertheless, an expedition of four or five pinnaces, commanded by Samuel Maverick of Noddle's Island, was sent against Dixey Bull in The orders were to find and bring home for trial the first pirate of the town.
R N DeArmond
After combing the seas for 2 months, the expedi- tion returned without having found a trace of Bull. Accounts of his subsequent career vary. One version is that he reached England safely, the other that he went over to "the enemy" the French. The Shipbuilders The founder of Boston died in John Winthrop had seen a town hewn out of a wilderness in less than 20 years. A vigorous and profitable commerce with ports beyond the horizon had already begun to transform the sprawling cluster of sticks and clapboards into a "city-like towne" of brick-tile, stone, and slate.
An anonymous Englishman about this time described Charlestown as consisting of about a hundred and fifty dwelling houses, many of them beautified with pleasant Gardens and Orchards: near the water-side is a large Market-place, forth of which issue two faire streets, and in it stands a large and a well built Church, over against the Island neare the Sea side stands Dorchester, a Frontire-town, water'd with two small rivers, built in form of a Serpent turning its head Northward, it consists of one hun- dred and forty dwelling houses with Orchards and gardens full of fruit trees.
Boston the Center and Metropolis of the rest, built in form of a heart, and fortified with two hills on the frontice part thereof, the one having great store of Artillerie mounted thereon, the other having 22 Boston Looks Seaward a strong batterie built of whole Timber and filled with Earth, at the descent of the Hill, lies a large Cave or bay, on which the cheife part of this towne is built, over topped with a third Hill, all three like over- topping Towers keeping a constant watch to fore-see the approach of forraign dangers, the cheifest part of this. Winthrop had guided his people as they caught fish, built ships, and became shrewd traders.
A pioneer of shipbuilding in Massachusetts, he has often been referred to as the father of the American Merchant Marine. Before Boston was a year old, he had ordered the building of a vessel near his Medford estate, and on July 4, , the Blessing of the Bay was launched on the Mystic, the first sizable ship constructed in Massachusetts. Built mainly of locust, of between 30 and 40 tons burden, the vessel was bark-rigged and cost between and The practical reason for her building was the Gov- ernor's distrust of England's sending over necessary supplies for the storehouses of the Colony.
On August 9, a group gath- ered near Winthrop's home, and offered prayers for the pros- perity and safe return of the vessel as she started on her maiden voyage to trade with the Dutch on Long Island. The Blessing of the Bay was later reconditioned for pursuit of pirates, and has been called the first war vessel in the country.
Smaller boats, however, had been built before the Blessing of the Bay by fishermen themselves during the spare time of winter. They were fashioned from timber gathered in the common woods. The material was shaped and fitted piece- meal, and the cash outlay usually involved little more than rope and canvas. With the builder at the helm and his sons as the crew, vessels of this type went on fishing voyages to "the Banks," and a decade or two later were sailing to the West Indies.
Medford became the center for Boston's shipbuilding. The Mystic River had no rocks or shoals and gave easy passage to an empty vessel of 25 tons. Its winding course made possible many shipyards within a narrow radius, and in each yard from one to three ships rose upon the stocks. A year after the Blessing of the Bay had been completed, a loo-ton ship was launched from Matthew Cradock's yard.
In Cradock's agent laid the keels for one vessel of tons. The Rebecca of unknown tonnage was also built that year. Private enterprise and governmental encouragement worked Explorers, Fishermen, Traders 23 in active cooperation to make Boston a maritime center. Laws were enacted to exempt ship carpenters, millers, and fishermen from military training.
An act of the General Court in added provisions which freed from taxes and duties for 7 years any ship or other property used in the fisheries. By ship- building was important enough to warrant stringent regula- tions by the General Court, designed to assure the proper con- struction of all vessels. One such act read: Whereas the country is now in hand with the building of ships, which is a business of great importance for the common good, and therefore suitable care is to be taken that it will be well performed, according to the commendable course of England and other places: it is therefore ordered that when any ship is to be built within this jurisdiction it shall be lawful for the owner to appoint and put in some able man to survey the work and workmen from time to time, as is usual in England, and the same so appointed shall have such liberty and power as belongs to his office.
Three years later, the General Court urged the formation of the shipbuilders into a company, for the better ordering of the industry and the maintenance of standards conducive to the public good. Shipbuilding became a community under- taking. The artisans who fashioned the planks, the merchants who supplied the material, the seamen who sailed the vessel, all became part owners, and so directly concerned in every voyage. The seamen were mainly former fishermen who, instead of fishing off "the Banks", carried dried and salted fish to Europe, the Barbados, and Bermuda, in exchange for the products of these foreign lands.
Because an English law prevented shipowners and ship- masters from leaving the mother country, Nehemiah Bourne, son of the shipwright Robert Bourne of London, had to obtain special permission to come to Boston. After working as a ship- wright in Dorchester, Bourne established his own yard in the North End, where he built the Trial, of tons burden in The maiden trip of this first vessel built in Boston took her to the Azores and the West Indies. Some of the ships it turned out were of remarkable size, among them the Wel- come, of tons, built by Valentine Hill in the early forties.
In beauty and size the 4oo-ton Seajort, built by Captain Thomas Hawkins and launched in , probably surpassed any vessel previously constructed in the Colony. But her glory was brief, for within a few months the ship was wrecked on 24 Boston Looks Seaward the coast of Spain. Several more fortunate vessels, immediately after their launching, took on cargoes of pipe staves, fish, and other products, and spread their sails for the Canaries.
The work of training apprentices in the shipbuilding trade was the specialty of Alexander Adams, a master-craftsman. Among the problems of shipbuilders were a scarcity of labor and a tendency among workmen to shift from one yard to another. Adams helped to stabilize conditions by train- ing 30 apprentices between and The foundations of skilled workmanship laid by him brought benefits to the shipbuilding industry for the next hundred years.
Foremost among Adams' successors was William Parker, his son-in-law, who followed him in the shipbuilding business. In later years, Parker specialized in mast building and became famous as the "mast merchant. The younger Langlee was succeeded by John Souther, whose sons, John and Leverett, later became noted for their schooners and square-rigged craft. In Hingham, Thomas Barker was building ships at Goose Point by and, about a dozen years later, was in Boston, under contract to build a bark. In William Pitt held a shipbuilder's license, and in a James Blaney was permitted to build a "vessel or two" near "Mill Cove.
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There was a continuous demand in the fishing and coasting trade for shallops fitted with mainmast, foremast, and lugsails. The Medford yards, in addition to brigantines and barks, which were built square and usually weighed less than 50 tons, sent out many sloops and ketches. The deck cabins of the sloops, placed at the stern, gave the appearance of the poop-deck of earlier date. Another characteristic of the sloop was the single mast carrying fore-and-aft mainsail boom and a yard or two of topsail. Broad-beamed sloops often did duty in carrying firewood to Boston and Charlestown.
The ketch became the common type of vessel used by Bostonians in the West Indies trade two-masted, rigged with a square sail on the mainmast and a lateen on the mizzen. Smaller sloops, called "lighters," used for river navigation, were built at Rock Hill Landing, near West Medford. Pinnaces were Explorers, Fishermen, Traders 25 fashioned sharp at both ends, often having two masts, and sometimes built "open," with no deck or only a half-deck.
They varied in size from a few tons to over 50 tons. So rapidly did the shipbuilders develop skill and enterprise that, within 35 years after the founding of Boston, there were New England vessels, mostly Boston owned, engaged in coastal and overseas trade. Thirteen hundred smaller craft were fishing off the coast. A variety of industries connected with shipping had been established on this side of the water. Even while huge supplies of cordage and sailcloth were emerg- ing out of the holds of vessels from the mother country, John Harrison of Salisbury, England, had in opened his rope- walk in Boston.
Wharves, Ferries, and Forts The increased maritime activity of Boston, with its need for improved waterfront facilities, necessitated the gradual "filling in" of marshes and swamp areas covering the Penin- sula, and the pushing out of the water mark to the deeper waters of the harbor. The area of solid ground presenting navigable water frontage was limited, and the merchants early recognized that a more uniform waterfront was desirable than the many indentations and coves allowed.
Bounties were estab- lished for persons who showed their public spirit by extending the shore line. In , the town granted the North Cove Mill Pond , the area now partly occupied by the North Sta- tion, to Henry Symonds, George Burden, and others, for the purpose of erecting "corn mills" on its shores. The new own- ers opened and deepened a channel from Mill Pond to the Great Cove on the other side of the Peninsula, which became known as Mill Creek. The original waterfront and the center for shipping was principally in the vicinity of Dock Square, near the present Faneuil Hall.
The merchant Edward Ben- dall was so prominently connected with the activities of this wharf that it became widely known as "Bendall's Dock. Bendall who contrived a primitive sort of diving bell, the first used in the harbor, and raised the Mary Rose, which had blown up in August , from an explosion of gun- powder on board and had obstructed the harbor for almost a year. An ordinance had provided that beacons be placed at landing places to warn of stones or logs which, partially submerged in the tide or too near the water's edge, might be a danger to vessels.
This measure was passed because of the damage suffered by vessels loading and unloading without wharf facilities. In , Valentine Hill and others were granted a large tract near the "Dock" to develop wharves, with the privilege of collecting for tonnage. Scarlett's Wharf was established at the foot of Fleet Street by Samuel Scarlett, who received the land in It served as an important dis- embarkation point for troops. Thomas Clarke, a wealthy mer- chant, had a wharf whose outline corresponded to the north side of the present Lewis Wharf.
Although wharves had to be built for unloading purposes, the lack of natural dock facilities was balanced by the advantages of the harbor, where ships could easily ride at anchor. Nor did colonial Boston neglect the ferry facilities necessi- tated by her situation. The rolling Charles separated the Shawmut settlers from the Charlestown people. A mile or two beyond the Charles, on the far side of the Mystic, lay Winnis- simet Chelsea. Inhabited Noddle's Island, completely cut off from the mainland, stood some little distance out in the harbor.
By , the "Great Ferry" was in operation between Boston and Charlestown. Seven years later, the General Court established a ferry to serve for connections with Chelsea, East Boston, and with ships in the harbor. In , the famous "Penny Ferry" began carrying passengers across the Mystic near the site of the present Maiden Bridge.
The first fortification in the harbor, an 8o-foot eminence, was constructed on Fort Hill in Within 2 years elab- orate fortifications were ordered for Castle Island. Beacon Hill derives its name from the signal light established there in March , as a guide to mariners at sea and as a warning of hostile approach.
From its earth ramparts encased in timber, cannon commanded the harbor. Explorers, Fishermen, Traders 27 The celebrated sea wall, constructed partly for defense and partly for use as a wharf, followed the line of the present Atlantic Avenue, and extended from Captain Scarlett's Wharf to the Sconce. This sea wall was begun in ; in its com- pleted form the timber and earth wall was almost half a mile long, 15 feet high and 20 feet wide, with emplacements for cannon, and with openings for ships to pass through. Along with these permanent defense arrangements, special precau- tions were taken on occasion, as when in tne Deputies of the General Court established a military guard in Boston and Charlestown because of the multitude of strangers from the many ships in the harbor.
Rum, Slaves, Molasses The building of fortifications along the waterfront reflected the increasing importance of Boston's shipping. Her earlier trading enterprise had been restricted largely to the collection of goods for export, the redistribution of commodities im- ported, and the barter of various colonial products. But when immigration lagged and "the scarcity of foreign commod- ities" increased at the Port during the Civil Wars in Eng- land , a more extensive maritime commerce developed.
Opportunely neglected by the mother country, Boston traders roamed the ports of the Western World, ped- dling and bartering. Islands of the sea and far-away coasts entered into the growing network of trade. Boston ship- masters brought back potatoes, oranges, and limes from Ber- muda. Vessels sailed for Barbados and Jamaica with cattle, meat, butter, cheese, and biscuit.
From Teneriffe came wines, pitch, sugar, and ginger good exchanges for Massachusetts corn. Even Madagascar was not outside the range of the Boston sea captain. Many Boston shipmasters would tajce on a cargo of rum from one of the numerous distilleries along the Massa- chusetts and Rhode Island shores and sail to the coast of Africa, where the product passed as currency.
To slake their fierce thirst for the fiery beverage, the Negro chiefs sold their enemies, acquaintances, friends, and when those outside the family group had been carried away, even sold their wives, children, mothers, and fathers into bondage on West Indian plantations.
After the slaves had been exchanged for molasses 28 Boston Looks Seaward in the West Indies, the Boston sea captains headed north. In New England, the molasses was turned into the distillery for more rum, to be used for another voyage in this tri-cornered trade. The liquor was also sold in enormous quantities to fishermen engaged with net and harpoon in the biting spray and bitter winds off the Banks, to robust laborers on the docks and in the shipyards, and to the masters of Boston ships who were required by their bonds to serve rum to the crew.
Sometimes slaves were actually imported into the Colony. Captain William Pierce of the Desire on his return from a trading voyage in brought back, as a part of the general cargo, Negroes whom he had taken on at Providence, Bar- bados. John Hull sent two Negroes to Madeira in exchange for wine. In , the first vessel in America authentically known to have been engaged in the slave trade, the ship Rainbowe, after being fitted out by Thomas Keyser and James Smith, the latter a church member, sailed from Boston to the coast of Guinea.
There she found some British slavers tied up, waiting for business to improve. To hurry things along, the Yankee skipper concocted a scheme with the Britishers. Under pretense of a quarrel with the natives, the combined forces landed a cannon, attacked a village on a quiet Sunday, killed many of the inhabitants, and brought away captives, two of whom were the share of the Boston seamen.
Public indigna- tion was stirred at the spectacle of these slaves being brought into the Port. The owners of the ship were sternly rebuked by the authorities, and the slaves were sent back to their own country at public expense. Romance and drama of the sea live in the simple accounts of the West Indies trade. As early as , the Desire, one of the first vessels engaged in traffic with the islands, brought back a cargo consisting mainly of cotton and tobacco.
In , the Trial carried fish and staves to Fayal, in the Azores. The Catholics of these islands were large consumers of sea food, and their occupation as winemakers made the Massa- chusetts staves acceptable for the construction of casks. Pick- ing up wine, sugar, and other articles in the Azores, the Trial exchanged these at St. Christopher's in the West Indies for iron from a wrecked ship, and for cotton and tobacco, and returned to Boston in the winter of Other Boston sea captains sailed to Jamaica, bringing back bars of silver and Spanish coin and plate.
Many lost all they had to pirates, Explorers, Fishermen, Traders 29 while others returned with so much money that they were themselves suspected of piracy. More often than slaves from Guinea, the Boston shipmasters carried such New England foodstuffs as corn, flour, biscuit, and especially salt codfish, which formed the principal diet for thousands of slaves.
In addition, hats, clapboards, pipe staves, lumber, and salt comprised the staples of Boston's export to the West Indies. The return cargo usually included cotton, indigo, ginger, dye-woods, tobacco, and molasses. The tobacco brought on one voyage was of such poor quality that John Winthrop pronounced the consignment sent by his son Henry, "very ill conditioned, fowle, full of stalks, and evill coloured.
The seaman of the hazardous West Indies route, according to Charles E. Cartwright in American Ships and Sailors, was typical of the seafarer from colonial Boston. Born within the sound of pounding surf, playing as a boy on the rough water- front swarming with riggers, ropemakers, and sailors, he had learned a love of the sea with his alphabet. Older boys had taught him to scull an oar and sail a dory.
As soon as he was strong enough to heave a rope, he had shipped as an appren- tice, since no vessel left port without two or three boys. Then he chanced his luck with roaring Hatteras gales and Carib- bean buccaneers. In the long voyage, with no land in sight for weeks or even months, the Boston seafarer became a different breed of man, a native of the ocean rather than of the land.
He strode about the ship in his wide canvas trousers, his broad belt supporting a vicious case knife. He wore rings in his ears, and his hair was gathered in a tarred pigtail. The Boston sailor lived on a hardy diet of salt pork, salt beef, hardtack, and lobscouse. He was subject to stern discipline aboard the little ships of the West Indies trade, and he might frequently be flogged with the rawhide cat-o'-nine-tails.
Though as skilled with blunderbuss and cutlass as in handling the rope and marlin spike, though fond of rum and coarse revelry, the Boston seaman was still a jolly, generous chap. The West Indies trade developed rapidly because it formed a natural complement to Boston's commerce with Europe. Local exports to the islands exceeded the purchases made there, whereas the imports from England were much greater 30 Boston Looks Seaward than the exports to the mother country.
Through the bills of exchange, the specie, and the tropical produce, obtained from the "sugar islands," Boston shipmasters obtained the cargoes required for successful trade with England. Neither the wars of England with France and Spain nor the threat of pirates and privateers on the Spanish Main could stop this profitable exchange, to which may be largely attributed the steady com- mercial growth of the Port. The small West Indies island of Martinique became more valuable to the merchants of Boston than the whole of Canada. Nearly all these were Boston-owned and Massachusetts-built.
Of the more than arrivals during the same 6 months, 89 came with cargoes from the West Indies, 37 from other American Colonies, and 21 from England. One of the impulses for the establishment of the famous New England mint in was the need for coining and recording the bullion and currency which poured in from the southern islands. John Hull, who became mint-master in , was himself a large owner of shipping. His vessels, the Friendship, the Society, the Dove, the Sea Flower, the Hope-well, the Tryall, and the Endeavor, were carrying his ventures up and down the Atlantic coast and to European ports.
He imported Eng- lish goods and exported tanned hides and other colonial prod- ucts. His own men cut timber on the Piscataqua for export. In trading with Spain, Hull usually consigned his goods to the ships of John Usher, Boston merchant and bookseller. While Hull's own vessels concentrated on the southern route, his assorted cargoes were often carried by "constant traders," ships that left Southampton or London in the early fall, drop- ping anchor at Boston between late October and early Decem- ber.
That part of his business correspondence which has been preserved reveals John Hull as a stern Puritan, who insisted that his seamen adhere rigidly to the rules of the church. In written orders, dated September 18, , and sent to John Alden, son of the bashful John and master of the Friendship, Hull concludes, leave noe debts behind you, whereever you goe, I know you will be carefull to see to the worship of God every day on the vessell and to the sanctification of the lords day and the suppression of all prophaines.
He was extremely jealous of his reputation for honesty. When his cousin, Thomas Buckham, called him a "very knave" in company, the wrathful Hull wrote, I can through the grace of God bid defiance to you and all men to challenge any one action in my whole life in all my dealeings amonst men since I attained the yeares of a man, I thank God I have dealt honestly not in Craftyness nor in Guile but in the feare of God.
A prompt apology is called for, "else I shall desire I may have no more to doe with you in this world, for the sin of Back- biteing and slandering is to be hated by all good men. He became one of the wealthiest and most respected merchant princes of Boston. A Growing Colony In , Parliament passed, upon the demand of the English mercantile class, a series of Navigation Acts which amplified and enforced those enacted 9 years earlier to give protection from the disastrous competition of colonial traders. These acts provided, among other things, that all goods in overseas trade were to be carried in ships owned by Englishmen and manned by crews at least three-quarters of whom were English.
The acts also enumerated a list of articles produced in the colonies which could be shipped only to an English port, or through English ports to other countries. In , the Staples Act was passed. This act made England the exporter of all European goods to be sent to the colonies and forbade the colonies to import directly from France, Spain, or Holland.
An exception was made in the case of salt for the fisheries of New England, which could be carried from any part of Europe, of servants, horses, and provisions, which could be imported from Scotland and Ireland, and of wines, which could be sent directly from Madeira and the Azores.
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The Boston merchants received the news of the restrictions upon their liberties with anxiety. After a generation of in- dependence, they found it extremely distasteful to limit their activities and onerous to pay tribute at the London Custom House. While the Crown appeared unwilling to bring matters to a head and followed a policy of peaceful persuasion, Boston shipowners determinedly ignored the Navigation Acts.
The government of the Colony did not disdain conciliation and diplomacy on occasion. At a timely juncture in , during 32 Boston Looks Seaward a brief war between England and France, a shipload of masts at a cost of was sent from Boston as a present for His Majesty's Royal Navy. Ten years later, a direct appeal was made to the royal appetite with a large present of cranberries and codfish for His Majesty's table. The larger part of Boston's trade between and was carried on illegally. Products from all over the world entered Boston duty free, and the Port outfitted ships to trade at will with all the nations.
Boston shipmasters sailed to New- foundland and Annapolis Royal, carrying provisions, salt, and rum; they bargained with New York, the Jerseys, Penn- sylvania, Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas, Bermuda, and the Caribbee Islands, carrying every native commodity meats, vegetables, fruits, flour, oil, candles, soap, butter, beer, rum, horses, sheep, cows and oxen, staves and earthen ware.
They received in exchange tobacco, sugar, molasses, salt, and wines.
Routes, definitely established, were varied from time to time only in so far as was necessary to evade the English customs authorities. From these ports, some went on to England and then back to Boston; others went from Spain or Portugal to the Azores and the Canaries off the coast of Africa, then to Senegambia, Goree, or the Guinea coast for beeswax, gums, and ivory, and finally home, in some cases by way of England. Still others sailed direct from Boston to Madeira, the Azores and the Canaries, sold their cargoes of New England staples, and returned by the same route with the wines of these islands.
The majority of Boston merchants sent their vessels to England with lumber, flour, furs, and naval stores, which were exchanged for cloth and iron wares. In some instances, the next objective, after touching in England, would be the Newfoundland coastal ports for fish; in others, the voyage would be directed to Lisbon or the Straits of Gibraltar for continental articles, and thence back home. Frequently, cap- tains sold their entire cargoes and ships for cash to London or Bristol merchants, invested the proceeds in manufactured goods, and shipped the merchandise home on a returning vessel.
Privateering The normal course of Boston's trade with ports outside English jurisdiction was at times upset by the turbulent political and military situation. The feeling of loyalty to the mother country was so strong among the Boston people that England's quarrels became their quarrels especially when profits were to be made thereby.
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While England and Holland were engaged in the first Dutch War in , the General Court of Massachusetts forbade the exportation from Boston of such produce as corn, pork, peas, beef, and bread to the French and Dutch colonies of America. During these English wars, daring Boston sea captains turned from peaceful trad- ing to privateering.