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Anthony in visual arts. The validation procedures were conceptual, semantic, operational, and functional equivalences, in addition to the equivalence of the items and of measurements. The conceptual, of items and semantic equivalences were performed by a specialized committee.
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During measurement equivalence, the instrument was applied to university students. Exploratory factor analysis was used to verify the loading of each item, explained variance and internal consistency of the constructs. Reproducibility was measured by means of intraclass correlation coefficient. The two translations were equivalent and back-translation was similar to the original version, with few adaptations. The layout, presentation order of the constructs and items from the original version were kept in the same form as the original instrument.
The sample size was adequate and was evaluated by the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test, with values between 0. Most items The validation process steps were considered satisfactory and adequate for applying to the population. Encouraging individuals to perform physical activity is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis and some cancers.
Behavioral theories use empirical studies to establish models that explain physical activity practice with the objective of helping design programs for promoting physical activity. Despite the significant increase in the production of knowledge regarding psychosocial factors and physical activity interventions in Brazil, 6 studies that address these aspects in young adults are still scarce.
One contributing reason for this the lack of valid instruments to measure these factors in the Brazilian population. Recently, four psychosocial scale validation studies were published, related to satisfaction, 15 self-efficacy, 16 perceived barriers 21 and social support 18 for performing physical activity.
Portuguese Phrases and Common Sentences
However, current instruments that measure other constructs, which make up the main theories applied to physical activity, are still insufficient, e. In addition to proposing and evaluating interventions regarding various health outcomes, in different contexts and age groups, PACE has also developed and validated psychosocial scales for health behaviors, including physical activity.
This study aimed to translate PACE into Portuguese, adapt it cross-culturally and identify the psychometric properties of the psychosocial scales for physical activity in young university students. The original instrument of the study consisted of 39 items distributed into four constructs.
Additional information regarding the instrument is available on the PACE project page. Behavior change strategy. Reflects the thoughts, activities and feelings that individuals can use to increase their physical activity, 19 made up of 15 items with a 5-point Likert scale never; hardly ever; sometimes; frequently; many times. Decisi on-making process. Consists of two factors perceived facilitators and perceived barriers to achieve behavior change, which are related to cognitive and motivational aspects involved in the decision-making process.
Related to the degree of confidence or belief with which the individual is capable of performing or adopting a certain behavior when faced with various existing barriers. Soc ial support from fam ily and friends. Represents support from family and friends regarding the process of changing or maintaining a behavior, which are related to incentives, supporting actions and joint practices. Regarding implementation, the entire validation process was performed according to procedures identified in the literature 17 and consisted of six steps: a conceptual equivalence; b items equivalence; c semantic equivalence; d operational equivalence; e measurement equivalence; and f functional equivalence.
The conceptual and items equivalence aimed to verify the relevance that each item had in its respective construct, considering the country of origin and the location where it was applied. A review of the studies was performed, including their development, validation and application. Subsequently, an appraisal of the items that make up each construct in relation to local culture was performed.
These steps were conducted by three researchers who have experience in instrument validation in the area of physical activity. The initial translation of the original instrument English into Portuguese was independently performed by two native professionals, one native of the Portuguese language and the other the English language. Based on the two translations, one group of researchers summarized a Portuguese version, which was again translated into English by an English native professional, fluent in Portuguese. The denotative meanings were evaluated to verify the literal correspondence between the two versions English-Portuguese.
The connotative significance was also observed, that is, the use of a word with a meaning different from the original, which will be developed according to its context. The Portuguese translation version was given to 20 university students so as to evaluate the extent to which each item is understood.
During the operational equivalence evaluation, the characteristics of the original version layout, completion guidelines, question sequence and response options and the questionnaire application method form, location and duration were assessed. About the measurement equivalence and functional equivalence, the psychometric properties of the Portuguese translation version from the psychosocial scales for physical activity were tested.
The levels of validity and reliability of the scales were estimated. Students of both genres, aged from 18 to 24 years were considered eligible. A total of 7, students were considered eligible to participate in the study. Minimum sample size was estimated at students.
To compensate for any possible drop outs or refusals, a decision was made to multiply this total by 1. For validation studies that use exploratory factor analysis, the literature recommends a or item-to-sample ratio for each item to be validated, 17 which would result in a sample of between and participants. Therefore, the required sample size is sufficient for all the validation tests.
The sample was randomly selected and proportionally distributed about the number of enrollments per class in each course and study time. Data was collected between October and November , by eight previously trained students. The interviewers were instructed to conduct individual interviews with the students in an environment that was separated from the classroom. In addition to applying the psychosocial scales for physical activity, information regarding age in years , economic class, b marital status single, married or otherwise , place of residence urban, rural , work yes; no and classes time daytime; nighttime were also collected.
The average duration time of the interviews was 30 minutes. The validity of the scales was verified by means of exploratory factor analysis, using the principal components technique with Promax rotation , and considering that the constructs present a correlation amongst themselves. To determine the number of dimensions and factors in each scale, eigenvalues greater than or equal to 1. Items with factor loadings greater than 0. Reliability was evaluated by means of internal consistency and reproducibility.
The functional equivalence was obtained based on the evaluation of previous steps. The data was tabulated using the Epidata 3. Considering the conceptual, items, semantic and operational equivalence, both translations were equivalent and back-translation was similar to the original version. It was decided that in Q4, Q16, Q17, Q18, Q19 direct language would be used, preferably while leaving the verbs in the first person.
From the surveyed students, The layout, presentation order of the constructs and the items from the original version were kept in their original form. It was only necessary to insert a text defining the meaning of moderate and vigorous activity in the form, in addition to examples of activities that characterize these intensities so as to provide better understanding. The temporal units and the measurement unit of the answer from each construct were highlighted in bold.
The original and final versions of the translated and adapted instrument can be seen in Table 1. Regarding measurement equivalence, a total of students participated in the study. Drop outs and refusals totaled 4. The final sample was made up of students Most students were single Prevalence of During psychometric properties analysis, all constructs were observed to be satisfactory for both the measure of sampling adequacy KMO test, with values between 0. During the exploratory factor analysis of the behavior change strategy construct, only one factor was identified, with factor loadings ranging from 0.
Reproducibility ranged from 0. In the decision-making process construct, two factors were identified, the first related to aspects that make behavior change easier, and the second related to aspects that make it more difficult. Factor loadings ranged from 0. It was observed that withdrawing any question would result in significantly reducing the internal consistency of the construct. Only one factor was identified during the perception of self-efficacy, with factor loadings ranging from 0. Withdrawing any question would have resulted in significantly reducing the internal consistency of the construct Table 4.
Two factors were identified in relation to social support, one being related to social support from family, and the other to social support from friends. In factor 1 support from the family , the factor loadings ranged from 0. Withdrawing any question would have resulted in significantly reducing the internal consistency for both constructs. Generally speaking, the results indicate that the psychosocial scales for physical activity showed adequate internal consistency, high factorial validity and good reproducibility levels. Evaluating the back-translation and the original version, no differences were observed, and it was well understood by the target population.
Nova Tradução na Linguagem de Hoje em áudio
The validation process followed all the steps that were expected for translating, adapting and validating the instrument. Culturally adapting the scales for Brazilian university students was relatively simple, since there was no difference between the connotation and denotation of the words or phrases. During a study by Pirasteh et al, 13 which comprehensively validated the PACE instrument in a population of Iranian women, minor adjustments were performed.
This evidence supports the idea that the instrument is easy to understand and is highly applicable, even when used in different countries. Operationally, the layout, completion guidelines, question sequence and response options were complied as described in the original instrument.
This instrument has been applied both electronically 10 and as an interview. Exploratory factor analysis extracted the same amount of factors that were observed in studies by Pirasteh et al 13 and Norman et al, 10 one being for the behavior change strategy construct, one for self-efficacy, two for the decision-making process factor 1: perception of facilitators, and factor 2: perception of barriers and two others for social support factor 1: family, and factor 2 : friends.
The factor loadings were above 0. When compared to studies that used the same scales evaluated in this study, either with more questions or by using only one or more constructs, it is possible to compare the results. However, these studies were developed with the objective of exclusively researching one construct. When constructing instruments to measure associated factors or determinants of physical activity for epidemiological studies, these instruments should contain modules that include different constructs from a theoretical model.
The aforementioned studies 10 , 13 that validated the original scale of the PACE questionnaire presented reproducibility results that only considered the mean value of the score observed in each construct. In this study, it was observed that the ICC values from the constructs ranged from 0. Overall, these results are similar to those reported in the original scale 10 varying from 0.
One limiting factor of this study was the fact that the original scales were developed for American adolescents and, in this study, they were adapted to young adult university students. This limitation has to be considered, as the scales were originally derived from other scales that has been validated for young adults and university students in studies carried out in the s and s.
In addition, given the socioeconomic and cultural differences in Brazil, testing the psychometric properties in samples of young adult university students from other regions of the country is suggested. E novamente, muito obrigado. Foram 7 anos e 3 jogos magistralmente traduzidos. Sou muito contente por isto. Infinitamente obrigado!!!!!!!!!!!! Final Countdown: Nossa, sabia que eu esqueceria de algo Final Countdown: Corrigi, valeu! Fabio: Muito obrigado, cara. Estou jogando pelo celular, e apliquei o patch tb pelo celular. Seria muito bom se o original fosse traduzido com a qualidade que o pessoal do Earthbound Brasil sempre nos proporciona.
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